Соломоновы острова

Вид на остров Рендова (Rendova Island англ.) из архипелага островов Нью-Джорджия (New Georgia Islands англ.). Соломоновы острова, апрель 2011

Официальное название: Соломоновы Острова, Solomon Islands (англ.)

Государство в юго-западной части Тихого океана, в Меланезии (Океания), занимающее бо́льшую часть архипелага Соломоновы острова, за исключением островов Бугенвиль и Бука, принадлежащих Папуа — Новой Гвинее. В состав государства Соломоновы Острова входят 6 больших островов (Шуазёль, острова Нью-Джорджия, Гуадалканал, Санта-Исабель, Малаита, Сан-Кристобаль), 20 средних по размеру островов (Велья-Лавелья, Нггела, Реннелл, Санта-Крус и др.), а также многочисленные мелкие островки и рифы — всего 992 острова и рифа, из них населены — 347).

Соседние государства: на севере — Науру; на северо-западе и западе за территориальным Соломоновым морем — Папуа — Новая Гвинея (острова Новая Гвинея, Муруа, Бугенвиль, риф Поклингтон, атолл Нукуману); на юго-западе — Австралия (в 1920 км); на юге за Коралловым морем — французские заморские территории (рифы Бамптон, остров Ион); на юго-востоке — Вануату (в 200 км); на востоке — Тувалу; на северо-востоке — Кирибати

Краткая справка

  1. Столица — г. Хониара (9º25´ ю.ш., 160º03´ в.д.) на острове Гуадаканал
  2. Площадь: 992 острова, акватория 1,35 млн км², площадь суши 28450 км²
  3. Население 553 тыс. чел. (оценка на 1.7.2011) , 17.6% — горожане
  4. Основные народы: меланезийцы 94%, полинезийцы 4%
  5. Государственный язык: в конституции не указан, в официальных документах используется английский
  6. Государственный строй — конституционная монархия
  7. Глава государства — британский монарх (с 6 февраля 1952 — королева Елизавета II) , представленный генерал-губернатором, назначаемым по рекомендации парламента на 5-летний срок
  8. Глава правительства — премьер-министр, избираемый парламентом, обычно им становится лидер партии большинства или коалиции в парламенте (c 16 ноября 2011 — Гордон Лило Дарси, Gordon Lilo Darcy)
  9. Парламент однопалатный, носит название Национальный парламент (50 депутатов, выбираемых по одномандатным избирательным округам всеобщим голосованием на 4-летний срок)
  10. Телефонный код 8-10-677
  11. Разница во времени с Москвой: +7 часов
  12. Денежная единица: доллар Соломоновых Островов (обозначение $ или SI$; код SBD по стандарту ISO), в 1 долларе 100 центов;

    Курсы обмена валют Центрального банка Соломоновых Островов на 09.09.2015:

    1$ = 8.1699 SBD, 1€ = 9.1408 SBD, 1A$ = 5.7078 SBD, 1 новозеландский доллар = 5.152 SBD; 1 доллар Соломоновых Островов = 14.6341 ¥

  13. Доменная зона в Интернете .sb
  14. Официальный информационный портал: Правительство
  15. Место в рейтинге нестабильности: 49 (из 177 в 2011; в 2010 г. 40-е место из 177; в 2009 г. 40-е место из 177; в 2008 г. 30-е место из 177; в 2007 г. 30-е место из 177). Относительно нестабильное государство

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Национальные праздники

  • 1 января Новый год
  • подвижная дата в марте-апреле — Страстная пятница
  • подвижная дата в марте-апреле — Чистый понедельник
  • подвижная дата в июне — День рождения королевы
  • 7 июля День независимости (1978, от Великобритании)
  • 25 декабря Рождество
  • 26 декабря Национальный День благодарения

Джек Лондон. Страшные Соломоновы острова (рассказ)

Избранные материалы «Вокруг света» о Соломоновых островах

Статьи

Июль 2002 Приговор (боевые действия между Японией и США на территории Соломоновых Островов в 1942 году)

Дневники экспедиций

7.12.2005 Страшные Соломоновы острова (яхта «Апостол Андрей» в ходе 3-й кругосветной экспедиции оказалась в водах Соломоновых Островов; обмен с аборигенами)

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Достопримечательности Соломоновых островов

Очень интересная экспозиция, посвященная системе денежных средств островов от глубокой древности и до наших дней, выставлена в Центральном банке страны (г. Хониара). Неподалеку функционирует музей под открытым небом, представляющий собой традиционную меланезийскую деревню с характерными постройками и предметами быта.

На южном побережье острова Гуадалканал находится тропический лес, заглянув в который с высоты вертолета, можно увидеть живописные места горы Лхамас и водопады Вихона.

В области Малаита люди приловчились строить искусственные островки, на которых они располагают свое жилье. В таких лагунах, как Ланга-Ланга и Лау, подобных строений особенно много: в них проживает около 12 тысяч жителей.

В Западной области архипелага самый большой город – Гизо. Отсюда можно подняться к вулкану Коломбангара, посмотреть на святыню мегапод, посетить крокодиловую ферму, побывать в гостях в еще одной деревне на сваях и посетить пляски в местном стиле в Мбангопинго.

В области Исабель интересен Морской природный резерват Арнавон, где живет популяция черепах.

Интересных мест на островах очень много. Но самостоятельно путешествовать здесь опасно, поскольку местные жители не всегда миролюбиво настроены. В сопровождении гида вы всегда сможете побывать в самых красивых и безопасных местах, принять участие в народных танцах и изучить хетаки – вид народной борьбы племени Хити.

External links

All links retrieved November 16, 2019.

  • Department of Commerce, Industries and Employment
  • Solomon Islands CIA World Factbook
Countries and territories of Oceania
Australia : Australia · Norfolk Island
Melanesia : East Timor · Fiji · Maluku Islands & Western New Guinea (part of Indonesia) · New Caledonia · Papua New Guinea · Solomon Islands · Vanuatu
Micronesia : Guam · Kiribati · Marshall Islands · Northern Mariana Islands · Federated States of Micronesia · Nauru · Palau · Wake Island
Polynesia : American Samoa · Cook Islands · French Polynesia · Hawaii · New Zealand · Niue · Pitcairn Islands · Samoa · Tokelau · Tonga · Tuvalu · Wallis and Futuna

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Politics

The Solomon Islands are a constitutional monarchy and have a parliamentary system of government. The Queen of England is the head of state. She is represented by the Governor-General who is chosen by the Parliament for a five-year term. There is a single-chamber parliament of 50 members, elected for four-year terms. Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the completion of its term. Parliamentary representation is based on single-member constituencies. Suffrage is universal for citizens over age 18. The head of government is the prime minister, who is elected by parliament and chooses the cabinet. Each ministry is headed by a cabinet member, who is assisted by a permanent secretary, a career public servant. Solomon Islands governments are characterized by weak political parties and highly unstable parliamentary coalitions. They are subject to frequent votes of no confidence, and government leadership changes frequently as a result. Cabinet changes are common.

Land ownership is reserved for Solomon Islanders. The law provides that resident expatriates, such as the Chinese and Kiribati, may obtain citizenship through naturalization. Land generally is still held on a family or village basis and may be handed down from mother or father according to local custom. The islanders are reluctant to provide land for nontraditional economic undertakings, and this has resulted in continual disputes over land ownership.

For local government, the country is divided into ten administrative areas, of which nine are provinces administered by elected provincial assemblies, and the tenth is the town of Honiara, administered by the Honiara Town Council. There is no military. The police force of nearly five hundred includes a border protection element. The police also have responsibility for fire service, disaster relief, and maritime surveillance.

Map of the Solomon Islands

Politics in the Solomons are influenced by its diplomatic importance to the People’s Republic of China and Republic of China (Taiwan). The Solomon Islands recognizes the Taiwan (ROC) as the sole legitimate government of all of China, giving Taiwan vital votes in the United Nations. Lucrative investments, political funding, and preferential loans from both China and Taiwan increasingly manipulate the political landscape. Relations with Papua New Guinea, strained because of an influx of refugees from the Bougainville rebellion and attacks on the northern islands of the Solomon Islands by elements pursuing Bougainvillean rebels, have been repaired. A peace accord on Bougainville confirmed in 1998, has removed the armed threat, and the two nations regularized border operations in a 2004 agreement.

Economy

View of Honiara

Its per capita GDP of US$340 ranks Solomon Islands as a lesser developed nation, and more than 75 percent of its labor force is engaged in subsistence farming and fishing. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported.

Until 1998, when world prices for tropical timber fell steeply, timber was Solomon Islands’ main export product, and, in recent years, Solomon Islands forests were dangerously overexploited. Other important cash crops and exports include copra and palm oil. In 1998, Ross Mining of Australia began producing gold at Gold Ridge on Guadalcanal. Mineral exploration in other areas continued. However in the wake of the ethnic violence in June 2000, exports of palm oil and gold ceased while exports of timber fell. Negotiations are underway which may lead to the eventual reopening of the Gold Ridge mine and the major oil-palm plantation.

The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. Exploitation of Solomon Islands’ fisheries also offers prospects for export and domestic economic expansion. However, a Japanese joint venture, Solomon Taiyo Ltd., which operated the only fish cannery in the country, closed in mid-2000 as a result of the ethnic disturbances. Though the plant has reopened under local management, the export of tuna has not resumed.

Tourism, particularly diving, is an important service industry, although growth is hampered by lack of infrastructure and transportation limitations.

Exports were US$171 million in 2004. Export commodities were timber, fish, copra, palm oil, and cocoa. Export partners were China (25.9 percent), South Korea (15.9 percent), Thailand (14.7 percent), Japan (9 percent), and the Philippines (4.5 percent). Imports were U.S. $159 million in 2004. Import commodities were food, plant and equipment, manufactured goods, fuels, and chemicals. Import partners were Australia (24.2 percent), Singapore (22.7 percent), New Zealand (7.6 percent), Fiji (4.7 percent), and Papua New Guinea (4.6 percent).

The Solomon Islands Government was insolvent by 2002. Since the RAMSI intervention in 2003, the government recast its budget, renegotiated its domestic debt and, with Australian backing, is seeking to negotiate its foreign obligations. Principal aid donors are Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, Japan, and the Republic of China.

Основные курорты Соломоновых островов

Отдых на Соломоновых островах популярен прежде всего среди любителей подводного плавания, так как кроме многочисленных рифов и лагун можно изучить затонувшие суда и даже самолеты, лежащие на дне со времен боев Второй Мировой войны.

Для пляжного отдыха подойдет остров Гуадалканал и столичные зоны отдыха. Отсюда начинаются многие трекинговые маршруты к естественным и искусственным водопадам и рекам. Особенно посещаемы водопады Матанико на одноименной реке. В городке Тулаги на южном побережье очень популярным занятием является рыбалка, богатым уловом могут похвастать даже новички. На островах Лауласи и Бусу можно стать свидетелем шокирующего обряда «призывания» акул и их вылова, сопряженного с большим риском для ловца.

Demographics

The majority of the 538,032 people on the Solomon Islands are ethnically Melanesian (94.5 percent); Polynesian (3 percent) and Micronesian (1.2 percent) are the two other significant groups.

There are 74 languages in the Solomon islands, four of those extinct. On the central islands, Melanesian languages are spoken. Polynesian languages are spoken on the outliers Rennell and Bellona to the south, Tikopia, Anuta, and Fataka to the far east, Sikaiana to the north east, and Luaniua (Ontong Java, Lord Howe Atoll) to the north. Immigrant populations of Gilbertese (Kiribati) and Tuvalu speak Micronesian languages. While English is the official language, only 1-2 percent of the population speak it; the lingua franca is Solomons Pijin.

Solomon Islanders are about 96 percent Christian (Anglican, 45 percent; Roman Catholic, 18 percent; United Church, 12 percent; Baptist, 10 percent; Seventh-Day Adventist Church, 7 percent; other Christians, 4 percent) and about 4 percent hold indigenous religious beliefs.

Geography

The Solomon Islands group lies east of Papua New Guinea and consists of: Choiseul, the Shortland Islands, the New Georgia Islands, Santa Isabel Island, the Russell Islands, Nggela (the Florida Islands), Malaita, Guadalcanal, Sikaiana, Maramasike, Ulawa, Uki, Makira (San Cristobal), Santa Ana, Rennell and Bellona, the Santa Cruz Islands, and three remote, tiny outliers—Tikopia, Anuta, and Fataka. The distance between the westernmost and easternmost islands is about 930 miles (1,500 km). The Santa Cruz Islands, north of Vanuatu, (of which Tikopia is part) are more than 120 miles (200 km) from the other islands. Bougainville is geographically part of the Solomon Islands, but politically part of Papua New Guinea.

The islands together cover a landmass of 10,965 square miles (28,400 square kilometers), which is slightly smaller than the United States state of Maryland. The terrain comprises mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls. The highest point is Mount Popomanaseu at 7,651 feet (2,332 m). Forests and woodland cover 88 percent of the land area. Most of the islands are part of the Solomon Islands Rain Forests Ecoregion, which also includes the islands of Bougainville and Buka (part of Papua New Guinea). These forests have come under pressure from forestry activities. The Santa Cruz Islands are part of the Vanuatu Rain Forests Ecoregion, together with the neighboring archipelago of Vanuatu. Soil quality ranges from extremely rich volcanic to relatively infertile limestone. More than 230 varieties of orchids and other tropical flowers brighten the landscape. Natural resources include fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates, lead, zinc, and nickel.

The climate is tropical, though temperatures are rarely extreme due to cooling winds blowing off the surrounding seas. Daytime temperatures are normally 77 °F to 90 °F (25 °C to 32 °C), falling about 37 °F to 41 °F (3 °C to 5 °C) at night. From April to October, the Southeast trade winds blow, gusting at times up to 30 knots or more. November to March is the wet season—the northwest monsoon—which is typically warmer and wetter. The annual rainfall is about 120 inches (305 cm). Cyclones arise in the Coral Sea and the area of the Solomon Islands, but they usually veer toward Vanuatu and New Caledonia or down the coast of Australia.

Natural hazards include typhoons, which are rarely destructive, frequent earth tremors, and volcanic activity. Environmental issues include deforestation, soil erosion, and the fact that much of the surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying.

The capital city of Honiara, situated on Guadalcanal, the largest island, has over thirty thousand inhabitants. The other principal towns are Gizo, Auki, and Kirakira.

Culture

Age-old customs are handed down from one generation to the next, allegedly from the ancestral spirits themselves, to form the cultural values to Solomon Islands. Most people reside in small, widely dispersed settlements along the coasts. Sixty percent live in localities with fewer than two hundred persons, and only ten percent reside in urban areas.

The chief characteristics of the traditional Melanesian social structure are: the practice of subsistence economy; the recognition of bonds of kinship, with important obligations extending beyond the immediate family group; generally egalitarian relationships, emphasizing acquired rather than inherited status; and a strong attachment of the people to the land. Most Solomon Islanders maintain this traditional social structure and find their roots in village life.

Radio is the most influential type of media due to language differences and illiteracy. The Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC) operates public radio services, including the national stations Radio Happy Isles and Wantok FM, and the provincial stations Radio Happy Lagoon and Radio Temotu. There is one commercial station, Paoa RM. There is one daily newspaper (The Solomon Star), two weekly papers (Solomons Voice and Solomon Times), and two monthly papers (Agrikalsa Nius and the Citizen’s Press). There are no locally based television broadcast services, although satellite TV stations can be received.

Traditional Melanesian music includes both group and solo vocals, slit-drum, and panpipe ensembles. Panpipe orchestras, which are well-known in Malaita Islands and Guadalcanal, use up to ten performers with different instrument, each with unique tunings. In the 1920s, bamboo music gained a following. Bamboo music was made by hitting open-ended bamboo tubes of varying sizes, originally with coconut husks, then with sandals introduced by American soldiers during World War II. In 1969, musicologist Hugo Zemp recorded a number of local songs that were released in 1973 as a part of the UNESCO Musical Sources collection. One of those songs, a lullaby named «Rorogwela» and sung by Afunakwa, a Northern Malaita woman, was used as a sample in a 1992 single «Sweet Lullaby» by the French electronica duo Deep Forest, becoming a worldwide hit. Modern Solomon Islander popular music includes various kinds of rock (music) and reggae as well as something known as island music, a guitar and ukulele ensemble format influenced by Polynesian and Christian music.

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